5M. Single St.

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28, 1/4. 1/1/4, 1/1/2 1/2 kg, 1 plastic, 3 tiles
If272= 35000, sand=1500f, serya60 =1/1/2tn
If225= 30000, sand= 1100f, serya60 =2tn

(Total cost. One foot /8 hundreds. max)

Plumb. 70.
Elect. 50.
Kiri. 25.
Rodi. 15.
Lab. 500
Mud soil
Wire 20 number, total 2kg

Double story
25×45=1125 covered (2000 sf) 3 rooms
35×65=2275 covered (3300 sf) 5 rooms

Wall, lenth×hight×wedth = X. Foot=13.5

1m= 3.280F
Ratio; chunai, 1:6 beam,column,lenter, (1:2:4)

Foundation, (1:4:8), over Rodi(1:4:6) Tile marble etc. (1:5)

Plaster interior(1:5) exterior(1:4). Chkhat(1:3:4)

DPC. Damp proof course

THINK AND GROW RICH

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The book ‘think and grow rich’ is Written by : Napoleon Hill this book is the number one inspirational and motivational classic book for individuals who are interested in furthering their lives and reaching their goals by learning from important figures in hisory It has been used as a roadmap to achievement by countless individuals.

The 13 Steps to Riches described in this audiobook offer the shortest dependable philosophy of individual achievement ever presented for the benefit of the man or woman who is searching for a definite goal in life. It comes directly from the experiences of hundreds of America’s most successful men.

Hill interviewed 504 people, including Ford, Wrigley, Wanamaker, Eastman, Rockefeller, Edison, Woolworth, Darrow, Burbank, Morgan, Firestone, and three United States presidents. The process of conducting these interviews required an investment of 20 years of Napoleon Hill’s life.

This audiobook will guide many to success, and has sold millions of printed copies for nearly three quarters of a century. Yes, one can gather from the title that the starting place for wealth is in a person’s thoughts, and this title is the source for most of today’s motivational speakers.

It can be hard to find motivation when you are caught up in the pace of everyday life. When you need to outsource a little inspiration, audiobooks make it possible to put the advice of the world’s personal development experts right into your ears. Here we have put together a list of power packed selections that include both newcomers and time tested selections from veterans of the genre.

this book is trying to teach you that any clearly defined goal that a person is willing to work to and achieve, regardless of failure can be achieved. that if you have a clear cut goal to get what you want, and you never stop pursuing it and you maintain the attitude that you will be successful, you will be successful, you will be successful.

THE 100:A RANKING OF THE MOST INFLUENTIAL PERSONS IN HISTORY

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The world famous best selling book ‘the 100 : A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History’. is written by an American author Michael H. Hart.
According to him Top 100 List is in here;

1. Muhammad (570 – 632 AD) Prophet of Islam.
Isaac Newton (1642 – 1727) – British mathematician and scientist.
Jesus of Nazareth (c.5BC – 30 AD) Spiritual teacher and central figure of Christianity.
Buddha (c 563 – 483 BC) Spiritual Teacher and founder of Buddhism.
Confucius (551 – 479 BC) – Chinese philosopher.
St. Paul (5 – AD 67) – Christian missionary and one of the main writers of the New Testament.
Ts’ai Lun (AD 50 – 121) Inventor of paper.
Johann Gutenberg (1395 – 1468) – Inventor of the printing press.
Christopher Columbus (1451 – 1506) – Italian explorer landed in America.
Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955) German/ US scientist discovered Theory of Relativity.
Louis Pasteur (1822 – 1895) French biologist. Developed a cure for rabies and other infectious diseases.
Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642) Italian scientist – confirmed the heliocentric view of the universe.
Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) – Greek philosopher and polymath
Euclid (c. 325 – 265 BC) – Greek mathematician
Moses (c 1391 – 1271 BC) A key figure of Jewish / Christian history gave 10 Commandments of Old Testament
Charles Darwin (1809 -– 1882) –Scientist who proposed and popularised theory of evolution.
Shih Huang Ti (259 – 210 BC) – King of the state of Qin who conquered and united different regions of China in 221 BC.
Augustus Caesar (63 BC-AD 14) – First Emperor of Rome
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who believed Sun was the centre of the Universe – rather than earth.
Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743 – 1794) French chemist and biologist who had a leading impact on the chemical revolution.
Constantine the Great (272 AD – 337) Roman Emperor who accepted Christian religion.
James Watt (1736 – 1819) Scottish engineer. Watt improved the Newcome steam engine creating an efficient steam engine
Michael Faraday (1791 – 1867) – English scientist who contributed in fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) Scottish physicist. Maxwell made a significant contribution to understanding electromagnetism
Martin Luther (1483-1546) Sought to reform the Roman Catholic Church – starting the Protestant Reformation.
George Washington (1732 – 1799) – Leader of US forces during American Revolution and 1st President of US.
Karl Marx (1818 -– 1883) – German Communist philosopher.
Orville and Wilbur Wright Orville (1871 – 1948) – Wilbur (1867 – 1912) – Created and flew the first aeroplane.
Genghis Kahn (1162 – 1227) – Military and political leader of the Mongols.
Adam Smith (1723-1790) Scottish social philosopher and pioneer of classical economics.
William Shakespeare (1564- 1616) English poet and playwright.
John Dalton (1766 – 1844) English chemist and physicist. Made contributions to atomic theory.
Alexander the Great (356 -– 323 BC) – King of Macedonia and military leader.
Napoleon Bonaparte (1769 –- 1821) – French military and political leader.
Thomas Edison (1847 – 1931) – Inventor and businessman helped introduce electricity and electric light bulbs.
Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) Dutch chemist – founder of microbiology.
William T.G. Morton (1819 – 1868) American dentist who pioneered the use of anaesthetic.
Guglielmo Marconi (1874 – 1937) Italian engineer who helped develop radio transmission.
Adolf Hitler (1889 – 1945) – Dictator of Nazi Germany.
Plato (424 –- 348 BC) – Greek philosopher.
Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) – Leader of Parliamentarians in English civil war.
Alexander Graham Bell (1847 – 1922) – Scottish inventor of the telephone.

Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) Scottish biologist who discovered penicillin.
John Locke (1632-1704) English political philosopher. Locke promoted a theory of liberal democracy and a social contract.
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 – 1827) German composer of the classical and romantic period.
Werner Heisenberg (1901–1976) German theoretical physicist – one of the pioneers of Quantum mechanics
Louis Daguerre (1787–1851) French artist and photographer, who is credited with the invention of the camera.
Simon Bolivar (1783 – 1830) – Liberator of Latin American countries
Rene Descartes (1596 – 1650) French philosopher and mathematician. “I think, therefore I am.”
Michelangelo (1475 – 1564) Renaissance sculptor, painter and architect
Pope Urban II (1042 – 29 July 1099) Influential Pope who ordered the first Crusade to the Holy Land and set up the Papal Court
Umar ibn al-Khattab (584 CE –  644 CE) Powerful Muslim Caliphate and senior companion of Muhammad. An influential figure in Sunni Islam.
Asoka (c. 260 – 232 BC) Powerful Indian King who established large empire by conquest before converting to Buddhism and pursuing a peaceful approach
St. Augustine (354 – 430) Influential Christian saint and writer, who shaped much of Western Christian thought.
William Harvey (1578 – 3 June 1657) English physician who made contributions to understanding how blood circulated in the body.
Ernest Rutherford (1871 –  1937) NZ born British physicist who made discoveries in atomic physics. His work on splitting the atom was influential for the development of atomic science.
John Calvin (1509 – 27 May 1564) Christian theologian who developed a strict brand of Protestant Christianity which stressed the doctrine of predestination.
Gregor Mendel (1822 –  1884) Czech/Austrian scientist and friar – who founded modern science of genetics.
Max Planck (1858 – 1947) German theoretical physicist who developed a theory of Quantum physics and discovered energy quanta.
Joseph Lister (1827 – 1912) British surgeon who pioneered the use of sterilisation and antiseptic surgery.
Nikolaus August Otto (1832 – 1891) German engineer who developed compressed charge internal combustion engine to run on petrol
Francisco Pizarro (1471 – 1541) Spanish Conquistador who claimed Inca lands for Spain.
Hernando Cortes (1485 – 1547) Spanish Conquistador who conquered the Aztec lands of modern-day Mexico.
Thomas Jefferson (1743 – 1826) 3rd President of US. Principle author of the US Declaration of Independence.
Queen Isabella I (1451 – 1504) Queen of Castille, who helped create a powerful and unified state of Spain whose influence spread to the Americas.
Joseph Stalin (1878 – 1953) Absolute ruler of the Soviet Union from 1924 to his death. Led the Soviet Union in WWII.
Julius Caesar (100 BC – 44 BC) Roman ruler who oversaw the demise of the Roman Republic to be replaced with a Roman Emperor. Militarily strengthened the power of Rome.
William the Conqueror (1028 – 1087) First Norman King of England
Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) An Austrian neurologist who founded psychoanalysis, which involved the investigation of the subconscious, dreams and human mind.
Edward Jenner (1749 – 1823) Developed the world’s first vaccine (the smallpox vaccine). Known as the father of immunology.
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen  (1845 – 1923) German physicist who discovered electromagnetic waves or X-rays.
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685 – 1750) Composer and organist who created some of the world’s most beautiful music.
Lao Tzu (6th Century BC – ) Author of Tao Te Ching and founder of Taoism
Voltaire (1694 –  1778). A key figure of European Enlightenment. His satirical writings played a role in the French Revolution.
Johannes Kepler (1571 – 1630) German mathematician and astronomer who created laws of planetary motion.
Enrico Fermi (1901 – 1954) Italian-American physicist who created the first nuclear reactor
Leonhard Euler (1707 – 1783) Swiss mathematician who made prolific discoveries in calculus and graph theory.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) – French philosopher, author of Social Contract

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Nicoli Machiavelli (1469 –  1527) Italian diplomat and Renaissance writer considered the father of political science.
Thomas Malthus (1766 – 1834) English scholar who raised concern over growing population.
John F. Kennedy (1917 – 1963) 38th President of the US. Served at the height of the Cold War and helped defuse Cuban Missile Crisis.
Gregory Pincus (1903 – 1967) American biologist who created the oral contraceptive pill.
Mani (216 – ) Iranian founder of Manichaeism, a gnostic religion which for a time was a rival to Christianity.
Lenin (1870 – 1924) Leader of the Russian Revolution and new Communist regime from 1917 to 1924.
Sui Wen Ti (541 –  604) Founder of China’s Sui Dynasty and reunifying China in 589
Vasco da Gama (1460s –1524) Portuguese explorer, first European to reach India and establish a route for imperialism.
Cyrus the Great  (600 – 530 BC) Founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire. Relatively enlightened ruler.
Peter the Great (1721 – 1725) Russian Emperor who expanded the Tsarist Empire to make Russia European power.
Mao Zedong (1893 – 1976) Leader of the Communist Revolution and dictator of China from 1949-1974.
Francis Bacon (1561 –  1626) Creator of the scientific method and key figure in Scientific Revolution of the Enlightenment.
Henry Ford (1863 – 1947) Owner of Ford Motor Company. Revolutionised mass-production techniques
Mencius (385–303BC) Chinese philosopher one of the principal interpreters of Confucianism.
Zoroaster (c. 1200 BC)  Iranian prophet who founded the religion of Zoroastrianism.
Queen Elizabeth I (1533 – 1603) Queen of England from 1558 to her death in 1603. Cemented England as a Protestant country, defeated Spanish Armada.
Mikhail Gorbachev (1931 – ) Leader of Soviet Communist Party who pursued reform – perestroika and glasnost to open Eastern Europe to democracy.
Menes c. 3000 BC Egyptian pharaoh who united Upper and Lower Egypt to found the First Dynasty.
Charlemagne (742 – 814) United Europe to form the Carolingian Empire. First western Emperor since the fall of Rome.
Homer Greek poet who wrote Iliad and Odyssey
Justinian I  (482 –   565) Emperor of Eastern Roman Empire
Mahavira (6th century BC)  Principal figure of Jainism.

ULTRA VIRES (ماورائے قانون )

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Ultra vires: دائرہ اختیار سے باہر (beyond the powers) is a Latin phrase used in law to describe an act which requires legal authority but is done without it. Its opposite, an act done under proper authority, is intra vires (within the powers). Acts that are intra vires may equivalently be termed ‘valid’, and those that are ultra vires termed ‘invalid’.

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL

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Amnesty International is a non governmental organization with its headquarters in the U K. focused on human rights. The organization says it has more than eight million members and supporters around the world.
It was founded in London in 1961, following the publication of the article The Forgotten Prisoners’ in The Observer on 28 May 1961, by the lawyer Peter Benenson. Amnesty draws attention to human rights abuses and campaigns for compliance with international rules and standards. It works to mobilize public opinion to generate pressure on governments where abuse takes place. Amnesty considers capital punishment to be “the ultimate, irreversible denial of human rights. The organization was awarded the 1977 Nobel Peace Prize for its defence of human dignity against torture and the United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rights in 1978.

In the field of international human rights organizations, Amnesty has the third longest history, after the International Federation for Human Rights, and the Anti Slavery Society.

Peter Benenson, the founder of Amnesty International. He worked for Britain during World War II. Amnesty International was founded in London in 1961. According to Benenson’s own account, he was travelling on the London Underground in1960 when he read that two Portuguese students from Coimbra had been sentenced to seven years of imprisonment in Portugal for allegedly having drunk a toast to liberty’ Researchers have never traced the alleged newspaper article in question. In 1960, Portugal was ruled by the Estado Novo government of Antonio de Oliveira Salazar. The government was authoritarian in nature and strongly anti communist, suppressing enemies of the state as anti-Portuguese. In his significant newspaper article The Forgotten Prisoners. Benenson later described his reaction as follows

Open your newspaper any day of the week and you will find a story from somewhere of someone being imprisoned, tortured or executed because his opinions or religion are unacceptable to his government. The newspaper reader feels a sickening sense of impotence. Yet if these feelings of disgust could be united into common action, something effective could be done.

Benenson worked with friend Eric Baker. Baker was a member of the Religious Society of Friends who had been involved in funding the British Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament as well as becoming head of Quaker Peace and Social Witness, and in his memoirs Benenson described him as ‘a partner in the launching of the project’ In consultation with other writers, academics and lawyers and, in particular, Alec Digges, they wrote via Louis Blom Cooper to David Astor, editor of The Observer newspaper, who published Benenson’s article “The Forgotten Prisoners’ in 1961. The article brought the reader’s attention to those ‘imprisoned, tortured swearly or executed because his opinions or religion are unacceptable to his government’ or, put another way, to violations, by governments, of articles 18 and 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights .

Ad valorem

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Ad valorem

United States
Ad valorem duties are important to those importing goods into the United States of America use the amount of duty owed is often based on the value of the imported commodity. ‘Ad valorem’ taxes mainly real property tax and sales taxes, are a major source of revenues for state and municipal governments, especially in jurisdictions that do not employ a personal income tax. Virtually all state and local sales taxes in the United States of America are ‘ad valorem’.

‘Ad valorem’ is used most frequently to refer to the value placed on property by the county tax assessors. An assessment is made against this value by applying an assessment rate e.g. 100%, 60%, 40%, etc. The net assessment is determined after subtracting any exemptions to which the property owner is entitled e.g. homestead exemptions, and a tax or millage rate is applied to this net assessment to determine the ‘ad valorem’ tax due from the property owner.

The two main basis for determining the ‘ad valorem’ value are fair market value and current use value. The fair market value is based on the typical selling price for property on which the buyer and seller can agree, with the assumption that the property is being used or will be used at its highest and best use after the sale. The current use value is a typical selling price for property with an assumption that it will continue after a sale to be used in its current use rather than being converted to its highest and best use. State legislatures have created many variations to these two main valuation approaches.

In some states, a central appraisal authority establishes values on all properties and distributes these to the local county or jurisdiction taxing authority, which then sets a tax rate and imposes the local ‘ad valorem’ tax. In other states, a central appraisal authority values certain properties that are difficult to value at the local level e.g. railroads, electric companies and other utility companies, and sends these values to the local county or jurisdiction taxing authority, while a local tax assessors determine the value on all the other property on the county or jurisdiction.

‘Ad valorem’ tax, most frequently referred to as property tax, relates to the tax that results when the net assessed value of a property is multiplied times the millage rate applicable to that property. This millage rate is usually expressed as multiple of 1/1000 of a dollar. Thus the fractional amount of 0.001 will be expressed as 1 mill when expressed as an ad valorem tax millage rate.

The tax determined from multiplying the ‘ad valorem’ assessment times the ad valorem tax rate is typically collected by the tax collector or tax commissioner.

VAT

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United Kingdom
The third largest source of government revenues is value-added tax (VAT), charged at the standard rate of 20% on supplies of goods and services. It is therefore a tax on consumer expenditure. Certain goods and services are exempt from VAT, and others are subject to VAT at a lower rate of 5%, the reduced rate or zero rate.

Canada
The Goods and Services Tax (GST) is a multi level value added tax introduced in Canada on January 1, 1991, by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and finance minister Michael Wilson. The GST replaced a hidden 13.5% Manufacturers’ Sales Tax (MST) because it hurt the manufacturing sector’s ability to export. The introduction of the GST was very controversial. As of January 1, 2012, the GST stood at 5%.
In 2010, the federal GST and the regional Provincial Sales Tax (PST) were combined into a single value added sales tax, called the Harmonized Sales Tax (HST). The HST is in effect in five of the ten Canadian provinces: British Columbia, Ontario, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Nova Scotia. Effective April 1, 2013, the Government of British Columbia eliminated the HST and reinstated PST and GST on taxable services provided in British Columbia. [3] VGGSA

Australia
The Goods and Services Tax (GST) is a value added tax of 10% on most goods and services sold in Australia.
It was introduced by the Howard Government on in 2000, replacing the previous federal wholesale sales tax system and designed to phase out of the various state and territory taxes such as banking taxes, stamp duty and land value tax. While this was the stated intent at the time, the States still charge duty on a various transactions, including but not limited to vehicle transfers and land transfers, insurance contracts and agreements for the sale of land. Many States, such as Western Australia, have made recent amendments to duties laws to phase out particular duties and clarify existing ones.

New Zealand
The Goods and Services Tax ( GST) is a value added tax of 15% on most goods and services sold in New Zealand.
It was introduced by the Fourth Labour Government on in 1986 at a rate of 10%. This was increased to 12.5% in 1989 and 15% in 2010.

Europe
A common VAT system is compulsory for the member states of the European Union. The EU VAT system is imposed by a series of European Union directives, the most important of which is the Sixth VAT Directive. Nevertheless, some member states have negotiated variable rates or VAT exemption for regions or territories. The regions below fall out of the scope of EU VAT.
VAT that is charged by a business and paid by its customers is known as output VAT that is, VAT on its output supplies. VAT that is paid by a business to other businesses on the supplies that it receives is known

PROPERTY TAX

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property tax, millage tax is an ‘ad valorem’ tax that an owner of the real estate or other property pays on the value of the property being taxed. There are three species or types of property, Land, Improvements to Land ( immovable man made things ), and Personal ( movable man made things ). Real estate, real property or realty are all terms for the combination of land and improvements. The taxing authority requires or performs an appraisal of the monetary value of the property, and tax is assessed in proportion to that value. Forms of property tax used vary between countries and jurisdictions.