Saudi Arabian news

Saudi officials prepared to receive Hajj pilgrims

Saudi Arabia’s General Presidency for the Affairs of the Two Holy Mosques said it would continue preparing organizational and development plans to provide quality of services at the Grand Mosque. Due to pandemic, only 60,000 pilgrims will be allowed to perform the pilgrimage as registration is only open to citizens and residents of the Kingdom

Officials have completed organizational, service, and health preparations to provide the best services to pilgrims at Grand Mosque in Makkah   

JEDDAH: Officials in Saudi Arabia said they have completed all the organizational, service, and health preparations to provide the best services to pilgrims upon their arrival at the Grand Mosque in Makkah during this year’s Hajj season, which will begin mid-July.

The General Presidency for the Affairs of the Two Holy Mosques said that all field and administrative agencies and departments are working to improve the outputs of business and services through pre-prepared plans and programs.

Due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the Ministries of Health and Hajj announced earlier this month that a total of 60,000 pilgrims will be allowed to perform the pilgrimage this year as registration is only open to citizens and residents of the Kingdom.

Authorities will take into account COVID-19 health requirements to preserve public health and safety while also facilitating the performance of rituals and worship in the Grand Mosque.

Those wishing to perform Hajj must be free of any chronic diseases, and be within the ages of 18 to 65 years for those vaccinated against the virus, according to the Kingdom’s vaccination measures. 

Hajj pilgrims should be fully vaccinated, or those who took one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine at least 14 days before, or those who are vaccinated after recovering from coronavirus infection.

COURT ORDER

A court order is an official proclamation by a judge or panel of judgesthat defines the legal relationships between the parties to a hearing, a trial, an appeal or other court proceedings. Such ruling requires or authorizes the carrying out of certain steps by one or more parties to a case. A court order must be signed by a judge, some jurisdictions may also require it to be notarized.

The content and provisions of a court order depend on the type of proceeding, the phase of the proceedings in which they are issued, and the procedural and evidentiary rules that govern the proceedings.

An order can be as simple as setting a date for trial or as complex as restructuring contractual relationships by and between many corporations in a multi-jurisdictional dispute. It may be a final order one that concludes the court action, or an interim order one during the action Most orders are written, and are signed by the judge. Some orders, however, are spoken orally by the judge in open court, and are only reduced to writing in the transcript of the proceedings.

TRUST IN GOD

Our employer thinks about our work, our thought in our work annoys us

Our employer

thinks of our work, our thought in our work harasses us

, our guide thinks of our way, our

thought in our way harasses us,

he is God, and in any case, helping

us to be ungodly in this sea also haunts us.

naughty slave born blind and harassment of our

creator and our every breath in remembrance of

neglect displacement Hemi hurt us this.

blessing upon Hafez.

کارساز ما به فکر کار ماست فكر ما در كار ما آزار ماست…
سینا
کارساز ما به فکر کار ماست

فكر ما در كار ما آزار ماست

راه دار ما به فكر راه ماست

فكر ما در راه ما آزار ماست

او خدا و درهمه حال یارماست

نا خدا بودن در این دریا همی آزار ماست

دیدن یك ذره از رحمت امید راه ماست

كور دنیا و بنده شیطان شدن آزار ماست

خالق است و هر نفس در یاد ماست

غفلت بیجا ازاین نعمت همی آزار ماست.

درود بر حضرت حافظ شیرازی رحمہ اللہ

ANIMAL TRIAL

In the legal history, an animal trial was the criminal trial of a non human animal. Such trials are recorded as having taken place in Europe from the thirteenth century until the eighteenth century . In modern times, it is considered in most criminal justice systems that non human individuals lack moral agency Illustration from Chambers Book of Days depicting a sow and her piglets being tried for the murder of a child. The trial allegedly took place in 1457, the mother being found guilty and the piglets acquitted. so cannot be the held culpable for an action.

Historical animal trials
Animals, including insects, faced on possibility of criminal charges for several centuries across many parts of European countries. The earliest extant record of an animal trial is the execution of a pig in 1266 at Fontenay aux Roses. Such trials remained part of several legal systems until the eighteenth century. Animal defendants appeared before both church and courts, and the offences alleged against them ranged from murder to criminal damage. Human witnesses were Oftenly heard and in courts they were routinely provided with advocates this was not the case in secular courts, but for most of the period concerned, neither were human defendants. If convicted, it was usual for an animal to be executed, or exiled. However, in 1750, a female donkey was acquitted of charges of bestiality due to witnesses to the animal’s virtue and good behaviour while her co accused human was sentenced to death.

Translations of several of the most detailed records can be found in E.P.Evans’ The Criminal Prosecution and Capital Punishment of Animals, published in1906. Sadakat Kadri’s The Trial, Four Thousand Years of Court room Drama Random House, 2006 contains another detailed examination of the subject. Kadri shows that the trials were part of the broader phenomenon that watched corpses and inanimate objects also face prosecution, and argues that an echo of such rituals survives in modern attitudes towards the punishment of children and the mentally ill.

Commonly tried animals
Animals put into trial were almost invariably either domesticated ones most often pigs, but also bulls, horses, and cows or pets such as rats and weevils. Creatures that were suspected of being familiar spirits or complicit in acts of bestiality were also subjected to judicial punishment, such as burning at the stake, though few, ever faced trial.

Basel case
According to Johannis Gross in Kurze Basler Chronik, in 1474 a rooster (مرغا) was put on trial in the city of Basel for ‘the heinous and unnatural crime of laying an egg’, which the city people were concerned was spawned by Satan and contained a cockatrice.

Katya the Bear
Katya the Bear is a female brown bear native to Kazakhstan who was imprisoned in 2004 after being found guilty of mauling two people in separate incidents. Katya was held in the Arkalyk Prison in Kostanay. The bear was released from imprisonment and allowed to congregate with the other bears after serving a 15 years sentence. Handlers report Katya socializing well with other bears after her long imprisonment.

Monkeys
In 2015, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals sued David Slater on behalf of a monkey named Naruto. The judge dismissed the case, ruling that, monkey did not have legal standing. PETA later appealed the ruling, and the appeal was rejected.

According to local folklore, a monkey was hanged in Hartlepool, England During the Napoleonic Wars, a French ship was wrecked in a storm off the beach of the Hartlepool. The only survivor from the ship was a monkey, allegedly dressed in a French army uniform to provide amusement for the crew. On finding the monkey on the coast, some locals decided to hold an impromptu trial; since the monkey was unable to answer any question.°

LEGAL ADVICE

Legal advice is the giving of a professional or formal opinion honestly regarding the substance or procedure of the law in relation to a particular factual situation. The provision of legal advice will often involve analyzing a set of facts and advising a person to take a specific way of action based on the applicable law. It is generally provided in exchange for financial or other tangible compensation. Advice given without remuneration is normally referred to as being pro bono.


In the common law systems it is usually received from a solicitor, barrister or lawyer,in civil law systems it is given by advocates, lawyers or other professionals (such as tax experts, professional advisors.
In some countries, legal advice is subject to the possession of a specific licence; in others, it is simply subject to the general regulation of professional obligation and can be provided by any person, who will usually be legally responsible for the provided advice. The UK’s Legal Services Act 2007 includes the giving of legal advice within the definition of unreserved legal activities, which means that it can be provided by any person not just an officer of the court However, if it is provided by a lawyer or another person authorised by one of the front line legal services regulators, then this activity is included within their regulatory reach.With the advent of the internet, many services have been established to provide individuals the power to conduct their own legal research or prepare their own legal documents as well, some companies offer answers to legal questions directly through their web services

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LEGAL ADVICE AND LEGAL INFORMATION
Legal advice is distinguished from legal information which is the reiteration of legal fact. Legal information can be conveyed by a parking meter, sign or by other forms of notice such as a warning by a law enforcement officer.
Printed legal materials, such as directions and how-to manuals, are generally not considered legal advice. Accordingly, instructions on how to meet court requirements for the submission of forms and other court documents do not constitute legal advice Thus, a non-lawyer may sell legal forms, provide general instructions for filling out the forms, and provide typing services for the entry of information into forms, provided no legal advice is given.

BASIC INSTRUCTION
Basic instruction on how to complete a legal form, where to place information on the form, and the definition of legal terms used on a form constitute the provision of legal information. Instructing a person on how to phrase information in a legal document or form, or advising the person as to what he or she should say in court, is the provision of legal advice Similarly, application of legal rules and principles to a specific set of facts and advising a course of conduct is almost always held to constitute legal advice.

ELEMENTS OF THE STATE

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There are four essentials of the State this includes population, territory (land), government and sovereignty.

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Population:
State is a community of persons. It is a human political institution. Without a population there can be no State. Population can be more or less but it has to be there. There are States with very small populations like Switzerland, Canada, Panama and Albania etc. and there are States like india, china and others, with very large populations The people living in the State are the citizens of the State. They enjoy rights and freedom as citizens as well as perform several duties towards the State. When citizens of another State are living in the territory of the State, they are called aliens. All the persons, citizens as well as aliens, who are living in the territory of the State are duty bound to obey the state laws and policies. The State exercises supreme authority over them through its government. There is no definite limit for the size of population essential for a State. However, it is recognised that the population should be neither too large nor very small. It has to be within a reasonable limit. It should be determined on the basis of the size of the territory of the State, the available resources, the standard of living expected and needs of defence, production of goods and supplies. India has a very large and fast growing population and there is every need to check population growth. It is essential for enhancing the ability of India to register a high level of sustainable development.

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Territory:
Territory is the second essential element of the State. State is a territorial unit. Definite territory is its essential component. A State cannot exist in the air or at sea. It is essentially a territorial State. The size of the territory of a State can be big or small; nevertheless it has to be a definite, well-marked portion of territory. States like Russia, Canada, U.S.A., India, China, Brazil and some others are large sized states whereas Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Maldivies, Switzerland, Togo, Brundi and many others are States with small territories. The whole territory of the state is under the sovereignty or supreme power of the State. All persons, organisations, associations, institutions and places located within its territory are under the sovereign jurisdiction of the State.Further, it must be noted that the territory of the state includes not only the land but also, rivers, lakes, canals inland seas if any, a portion of coastal sea—territorial waters or maritime belt, continental shelf, mountains, hills and all other land features along with the air spaceabove the territory. The territory of the state can also include some islands located in the sea. For example Anadaman & Nicobar and Daman and Diu are parts of India. State exercises sovereignty over all parts of its territory. Ships of the State are its floating parts and Aero-planes are its flying parts. Even a States can lease out its territory to another State e.g. India has given on lease the Teen Bigha corridor to Bangladesh.

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 Government
Government is the third essential elementof the State
Government is the organisation or machinery of the State which makes, implements, enforces and adjudicates the laws of the state.The state exercises its sovereign power through its government. Here at the moment it is lmportant to differentiate between government and state it must be clearly noted that government is just one element of the State. It is the agent or the working agency of the State. Sovereignty belongs to the State; the government only uses it on behalf of the State

Each government has three organs:
(1) Legislature,  which formulates the will of State i.e. performs law-making functions;
(2) Executive,   enforces and implements the laws i.e. performs the law-application functions; and
(3) Judiciary,  which applies the laws to specific cases and settles the disputes i.e. performs adjudication functions.
Government as a whole is the instrument through which the sovereign power of the State gets used. In ancient times, the King used to perform all functions of the government and all powers of governance stood centralized in his hands. Gradually, however, the powers of King got decentralized and these came to be exercised by these three organs of the government: Legislature, Executive and Judiciary.
Each of these three organs of the government carries out its assigned functions. Independence of Judiciary is also a settled rule. The relationship between the Legislature and Executive is defined by law and it corresponds to the adopted form of government. In a Parliamentary form of government, like the one which is working in India and Britain, the legislature and executive are closely related and the latter is collectively responsible before the former.
In the Presidential form, as is in operation in the U.S.A., the legislature and executive are two independent and separate organs with stable and fixed tenures, and the executive is not responsible to legislature. It is directly responsible to the people

 SOVEREIGNTY :
Sovereignty is the most exclusive element of State. State alone posses sovereignty. Without sovereignty no state can exit
State has the exclusive title and prerogative to exercise supreme power over all its people and territory. In fact, Sovereignty is the basis on which the State regulates all aspects of the life of the people living in its territory.
As the supreme power of the State,

There are two  dimensions of sovereignty
(i) Internal Sovereignty:
It means the power of the State to order and regulate the activities of all the people, groups and institutions which are at work within its territory. All these institutions always act in accordance with the laws of the State. The State can punish them for every violation of any of its laws.

 (ii) External Sovereignty:
It means complete independence of the State from external control. It also means the full freedom of the State to participate in the activities of the community of nations. Each state has the sovereign power to formulate and act on the basis of its independent foreign policy.
We can define external sovereignty of the State as its sovereign equality with every other state. State voluntarily accepts rules of international law. These cannot be forced upon the State. India is free to sign or not to sign any treaty with any other state. No state can force it to do

BRIBERY

DEFINATION
BRIBERY defined as, the offering, giving, or receiving, of any item of value to influence the actions of an official, or other person.

In charge of a public or legal obligation With regard to governmental affairs , It is the acceptance, or transfer of value in exchange for official affair. But, the gifts or money otherwise available to everyone on an equivalent basis, and not for dishonest inventions , is not bribery. Likewise offerings a discount or a refund to all purchasers is a legal rebate and is not bribery. For example, it is legal for an employee of a Public Utilities Commission involved in electric rate regulation to accept a rebate on electric service that reduces their cost for electricity, when the rebate is available to other residential electric customers. However, giving a discount specifically to that employee to influence them to look favorably on the electric utility’s rate increase applications would be considered bribery.

EXPLANATION.

BRIBERY IS A BIG CURSE
Bribe is an illegal or unethical gift or lobbying effort bestowed to influence the conduct of the recipient. It may be money, goods, rights in action, property, preferment, privilege, emolument, objects of value, advantage, or merely a promise to induce or influence the action, vote, or influence of a person in an official or public capacity . it is usually becomes a criminal action if the perpetrator offers or gives something of value to a public official for the object of influencing their legal obligations or duties . Public officials include civil servants such as police, prosecutors, defense lawyers, and even judges.
The public official accepting a bribe may also be charged with bribery. The felony of bribery could lead to the incarceration of the accused with serious penalties that may include years behind bars and extensive fines.

MORE EXPLANATION
Bribery generally does not involve the police if the matter is between two individual without any public office related matters.include monetary decompensation. However, the matter elevates to criminal when one of these parties is a public official because the power he or she may have over the public increases significantly. The briber may involve the other person in something that negatively impacts others but improves the situation for a select few or only the two in the bribe.


Bribery has the intention to influence the person sought for the bribe. Then, the influence changes to what this person accomplishes for the bribe itself. He or she may grant a favor, change a city ordinance, affect how the public views something or even change election ballots or votes. The greater the influence the person has, the worse the penalties are when facing conviction in a court of law. The prosecutor must show corrupt intent involved in this process, and both the briber and the bribed may face criminal charges for involvement. Some crimes elevate to extortion depending on the circumstances.

MAIN ELEMENT OF BRIBERY
The primary reason bribery usually goes unnoticed is that the other party participates as well. It is different from blackmail or extortion that could charge the person with criminal action The elements are generally similar to these other theft crimes when the other party convinces the target to engage in bribery. However, instead of intimidation, coercion with the threat of violence or assault, the victim receives a positive reward when complying with the demands. By giving the other person something of favor or influence, the target will receive some compensation in one form

ISLAMIC VIEW
Islam declare bribery as a big curse. According to saying of the Prophet of Islam HAZRAT MUHAMMAD ( peace be upon him ) .
He who give give bribery and he who take bribery both will go to hell

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PLATO

PLATO ( 428 B.C. to 348 B.C.) is widely considered the pivotal figure in the history of Ancient Greek and Western philosophy, along with his teacher, Socrates, and his Aristotle. Plato is also considered the founder of Western political philosophy. His most famous contribution is the theory of Forms known by pure reason, in which Plato presents a solution to the problem of universals known Platonism.

His own most decisive philosophical influences are usually thought to have been along with Socrates, the pre-Socratics Pythagoras, Heraclitus and Parmenides, although few of his predecessors’ works remain extant and much of what we know about these figures derives from Plato himself. Unlike the work of nearly all of his contemporaries, Plato’s entire body of work is believed to have survived intact for over 2,400 years. Although their popularity has fluctuated over the years, the works of Plato have never been without readers since the time they were written.

Plato is, by any reckoning, one of the most dazzling writers in the Western literary tradition and one of the most penetrating, wide-ranging, and influential authors in the history of
philosophy. An Athenian citizen of high status, he displays in his works his absorption in the political events and intellectual movements of his time, but the questions he raises are so profound and the strategies he uses for tackling them so richly suggestive and provocative that educated readers of nearly every period have in some way been influenced by him, and in practically every age there have been philosophers who count themselves Platonists in some important respects. He was not the first thinker or writer to whom the word philosopher should be applied. But he was so self-conscious about how philosophy should be conceived, and what its scope and ambitions properly are, and he so transformed the intellectual currents with which he grappled, that the subject of philosophy, as it is often conceiveda rigorous and systematic examination of ethical, political, metaphysical, and epistemological issues, armed with a distinctive method,

Joe Biden

It’s worth following up briefly, as there were some notable outcomes from his whistle stop summitry   to begin with, he very clearly succeeded in resetting relations with America’s European allies and putting the various multilateral forums of the trans, Atlantic partnership back on an even keel° The experience and professionalism of the Biden team was on prominent display, especially compared to former President Donald Trump’s chaotic and unpredictable approach to these settings °

Accesory person راز دار، مددگار

In common law ‘accessory person’ is that person who assists in the commission of a crime, but who does not actually participate in the commission of the crime. The distinction between an accessory and a principal is a question of fact and degree:

The principal is That person whose acts or omissions, accompanied by the relevant ‘mens rea’ are the most immediate cause of the guilty act.
If two or more people are directly responsible for the guilty act they can be charged as joint principals. The test to distinguish a joint principal from an accessory is whether the defendant independently contributed to causing the guilty acts rather than merely giving generalised and limited help and encouragement.

Elements
In some jurisdictions, an accessory is distinguished from an accomplice (ساتھی ، شریک جرم) who normally is present at the crime and participates in some way. An accessory must generally have knowledge that a crime is being committed, will be committed, or has been committed. A person with such knowledge may become an accessory by helping or encouraging the criminal in some way. The assistance to the criminal may be of any type, including emotional or financial assistance as well as physical assistance or concealment.

Relative severity of penalties
The punishment tariff for accessories varies in different jurisdictions, and has varied at different periods of history. In some times and places accessories have been subject to lesser penalties than principals ( the persons who actually commit the crime ). In others accessories are considered the same as principals in theory, although in a particular case an accessory may be treated less severely than a principal. In some times and places accessories before the fact ‘with knowledge of the crime before it is committed’. have been treated differently from accessories after the fact’ those who aid a principal after a crime has been committed, but had no role in the crime itself’. Common law traditionally considers an accessory just as guilty as the principal in a crime, and subject to the same penalties. Separate and lesser punishments exist by statute in many jurisdictions.

Conspiracy ( سازش )
In some situations, a charge of conspiracy can be made even if the primary offense is never committed, so long as the plan has been made, and at least one overt act towards the crime has been committed by at least one of the conspirators. For example, if a group plans on forging bank checks, and forges the checks but ultimately does not attempt to cash the checks, the group might still be charged with conspiracy due to the overt act of forgery. Thus, an accessory before the fact will often, but not always, also be considered a conspirator. A conspirator must have been a party to the planning of the crime, rather than merely becoming aware of the plan to commit it and then helping in some way.

A person who incites another to a crime will become a part of a conspiracy if agreement is reached, and may then be considered an accessory or a joint principal if the crime is eventually committed.

In the United States, a person who learns of the crime and gives some form of assistance before the crime is committed is known as an (accessory before the fact). A person who learns of the crime after it is committed and helps the criminal to conceal it, or aids the criminal in escaping, or simply fails to report the crime, is known as an (accessory after the fact) A person who does both is sometimes referred to as an (accessory before and after the fact), but this usage is less common.

Criminal facilitation
In some jurisdictions, criminal ‘facilitation’ laws do not require that the primary crime be actually committed as a prerequisite for criminal liability. These include state statutes making it a crime to ‘provide’ a person with ‘means or opportunity’ to commit a crime,

Under the English common law, an accomplice is a person who actively participates in the commission of a crime, even if they take no part in the actual criminal offense. For example, in a bank robbery, the person who points the gun at the teller and demands the money is guilty of armed robbery. Anyone else directly involved in the commission of the crime, such as the lookout or the getaway car driver, is an accomplice, even if in the absence of an underlying offense keeping a lookout or driving a car would not be an offense.

An accomplice differs from an accessory in that an accomplice is present at the actual crime, and could be prosecuted even if the main criminal (the principal) is not charged or convicted. An accessory is generally not present at the actual crime, and may be subject to lesser penalties than an accomplice or principal.

At law, an accomplice has lesser guilt than the person he or she is assisting, is subject to lesser prosecution for the same crime, and faces the smaller criminal penalties. As such, the three accomplices to the bank robbery above can also to a degree be found guilty of armed robbery even if only one stole money.

The fairness of the doctrine that the accomplice is still guilty has been subject to much discussion, particularly in cases of capital crimes. Accomplices have been prosecuted for felony murder even if the actual person who committed the murder died at the crime scene or otherwise did not face capital punishment.

In jurisdictions based on the common law, the concept of an accomplice has often been heavily modified by statute, or replaced by new concepts entirely.